Diploid is a cell , a organism or a tissue which has two sets of chromosomes . The chromosomes , on the other hand, are corpuscles with a cane aspect in which the chromatin belonging to the cell nucleus in the process of meiosis and the mitosis .
To understand the concept of diploid, therefore, you have to define other notions. Mitosis and meiosis are processes of cell division; Chromatin is the group of proteins, histones and DNA found in the nucleus of eukaryotic type cells that make up the eukaryotic chromosome .
Let's see what are the diploid cells . These are those cells that have a double series of chromosomes since they have two sets of these. This particularity makes it possible to distinguish diploid cells from gametes, which are cells formed by a single set of chromosomes (they only have one version of the genetic data). The gamete, in fertilization, merges with a gamete belonging to the opposite genus to shape the zygote.
The diploid cells of the human being present 46 chromosomes (double series of 23). Gametes, which originate through germ cell meiosis, have half (i.e. 23).
The chromosomal mutations , also known as chromosomal aberrations , are the variations in the amount or structure of a chromosome. These errors occur during the structuring of gametes through meiosis (a process known as gametogenesis) or in the divisions that first develop in the zygote. The alterations can be caused by the breakage of the DNA chain, for example.
While a diploid cell is composed of an even number of chromosomes, a haploid cell contains a single set of chromosomes or half the number set as normal in diploid cells. In the case of reproductive cells, both ovules and sperm cells, in the case of mammals, they are haploid, while the rest of the cells of the organisms contain a pair, one half contributed by the mother and the other by the father.
Reproduction in bees
It should be mentioned that in different species the fertilization process usually differs. In the case of the beesfor example there are various forms of fertilization , which results in clearly distinguishable individuals from each other: workers, drones and queens.
Yes a diploid egg is produced by meiosis , that is to say that through asexual reproduction (because the egg is fertilized without the need for sperm to intervene) the bee can produce female gametes. If, on the other hand, fertilization is carried out by a male and produces sperm by mitosis, these will be fertilized by the haploid ovules of the queen and the result will be a worker bee.
The Queen will lay three kinds of eggs , one of them diploids and the other two haploids. In other words, the first ones, those that have been fertilized, will be future queens, while the second ones, the eggs that have not been fertilized, will be workers, the feminineand drones, the masculine. Each will have an indisputable task in the life of the hive, the former will work and feed the larvae while the latter will be future candidates to mate To the queen.
If of all the eggs that the queen lays none of the fertilized is born, the survival of the hive will be threatened , because the workers cannot reproduce, they are infertile since their reproductive organs have been atrophied by means of the pheromonal control of oxo-decenoic acid produced in the mandibular glands of the Queen. That is to say that in the event that it dies, after a few weeks, the pheromone will be released and the workers will be able to begin to develop their ovaries and possibly even lay eggs, however the same they cannot be fertilized by males , so that the individuals born of them will be all males.
It is worth mentioning that the fertilization of bees is asexual since the queen in the reproductive act receives sperm from the male and keeps it in a cabin that receives the name spermatheca, but fertilization will take place later , when laying the eggs.