The tectonics is the division of the geology who studies the Earth's crust structure . As an adjective, either in masculine (tectonic ) or female (tectonics ), the notion refers to what is linked to this structure or to that related to architectural constructions.
As a geological specialty, tectonics analyzes the structures that are formed from the process that causes deformations In the bark The characteristics of the relief of our planet, therefore, are associated with the way in which the materials that make up the geological structures are arranged.
It is possible to differentiate between original structures (which develop simultaneously with the formation of rocks) and deformed structures (modified by forces that act on the original formations or on the result of previous deformations).
The original structures are studied by structural geology, while tectonics specializes in the study of deformed structures. Both disciplines , anyway, they are complementary.
The deformations can be described in different ways. The megatectonics they are the largest structures, which span thousands of kilometers . The microtectonics On the other hand, they can hardly be noticed with a microscope. On the other hand you can differentiate between the thick skin tectonics or thin skin tectonics according to the tectonic deformation style when the continental crust is shortened.
It should be noted that it is known as tectonic plate to the piece of lithosphere (the solid surface layer of the land ) that can move over the asthenosphere (the layer immediately below the lithosphere) without suffering internal deformations. The theory that explains how the lithosphere is structured is called Tectonic plates .
It is important to note that the lithosphere is the outer part of the planet that is at a lower temperature. Plate tectonics tries to explain the presence of the homonymous plates that make up the earth's surface, as well as the origin of the displacements that occur between them when they move on the Earth's mantle, their interactions and the directions each one takes.
The orogenesis It is the geological process through which the Earth's crust is shortened and folded into an elongated area, all as a result of a push. Plate tectonics also seeks to explain said phenomenon , as well as the reason that volcanoes and earthquakes are found in certain very specific regions of our planet (a clear example is the Pacific Fire Belt , which includes many countries, from Chile to New Zealand, through Canada and Russia).
Another question that attempts to solve plate tectonics is the reason why large underwater pits are close to islands and continents, instead of being freely distributed throughout the deepest areas of the oceans.
With respect to deformations, it is possible to distinguish between two types of basic movements: epirogenic (or vertical), which are characterized by their considerable slowness and wide radius, and are produced to regain isostatic balance; the orogenetic (or horizontal), which cause fractured and folded reliefs. Today, it is precisely through plate tectonics that specialists can explain the relief of our planet, as well as virtually any concept of geology.
There is a subdiscipline of tectonics called neotectonics , which is dedicated to studying deformations and movements of the Earth's crust; This includes geomorphological and geological processes. The term began to be used in the year 1948 to encompass the tectonic movements that had taken place over the end of the Cenozoic Era , approximately 2.5 billion from years ago